Piri Reis Map: Explained and Elaborated

Bold words refer to prominent places and people in the map. Italic sentences explain further information about locations and people other than the map. [Words] like this model mean the modern-day location of a place in the map.
In spotting the places, I followed Prof. McIntosh’s valuable and reliable work’s order (p. 16). I added four more places starting from F(urther) 1. In explanations, I also used the map’s publication in five languages by the Department of Navigation in the Turkish Naval Forces in 1981.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The texts below contain the original Ottoman Turkish version written in Latin letters (above) and its English translation for each point (below). To ease the reader, when Ottoman Turkish texts were long, each line was separated and indicated in alphabetical order [a) or c)].

1. Vakami denilen kızıl boya olur ki karşıda görülmez gayet uzaktır…dağlarında madenlik bigayet bakkamı çok bir yerde koynu olur ki yünü ibrişimdir ilmügi açarmış.
1. There is a kind of red dye called vakami, that you do not observe at first, because it is at a distance . . . the mountains contain rich ores. . . . There, some of the sheep have silken wool.

“Vakami, was an important early product of the New World imported into Europe”. (McIntosh, 30).

2. Kavpunta Arofi: Bu diyarlar imaretliktir. Cümle halkı üryan yürürler.

2. This country is inhabited. The entire population go naked.

Arofi possibly meant Ornofay around the south coast of Cuba.

 

 

3-Feridat Kalesi (üst)

Bu diyara Antilya vilâyeti derler. Gün batısı canibidir. Dört cins tuti olur imiş, ak, kızıl, yeşil, kara. Halkı tuti etini yerler ve taçları cümle tuti yünündendir. Bunda bir taş olur, siyah mehenk taşına benzer, halkı nacak yerine anı kullanırlar imiş. Gayet te berk taş olduğunu . . . . . . ; biz ol taşı gördük.

3-The Castle of Feridat (above)

This region is known as the province of Antilia. It is on the side where the sun sets. They say that here there are four kinds of parrots, white, red, green and black. The people eat the flesh of parrots and their head-dress is made entirely of parrot feathers. There is a stone here. It resembles black touchstone. The people use it instead of an axe. That it is very hard . . . [illegible]…. we saw that stone.

The Castle of Feridat can mean the Spanish Governorate of Veragua (Gobernación de Veragua) below on the right side. This governorate included the coasts of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama [below on the left side] until 1537. (McIntosh, 108)

4-Harrahu el fakir Piri bin Hacı Mehmed eş-şehir Biraderzade Kemal Reis fi şehr-i Gelibolu afallah anhüma şehr-i Muharrem’ül-Haram sene tis’a ve ışrin ve tis’a mie.

4-This map was drawn by al-poor Piri Ibn Haji Mehmed, known as the nephew of Kemal Reis, in Gallipoli, in the month of Muharrem of the year 919.

5-Bu fasıl iş bu kenarların ve dahi cezairin nice bulunduğunu beyan eder.

a) İşbu kenarlara Antilya kıyıları derler. Arap tarihinin sekiz yüz doksan altı yılında bulunmuştur. Amma şöyle rivayet ederler kim

b) Cinevizden bir kâfir adına Kolonbo derler imiş, bu yerleri ol bulmuştur. Meselâ mezbur Kolonbonun eline bir kitap girmiş ki Mağrip Denizinin nihayeti

c) yani gark (garp) tarafında kenarlar ve cezireler ve türlü türlü madenler ve dahi cevahir dağı vardır deyu bu kitapta bulur. Mezbur kitabı tamam mütalea ederek

d) Cineviz ulularına bu kaziyeleri bir bir şerh edip eydür : gelin, bana iki pare gemi verin, varayım, ol yerleri bulayım, der. Bunlar eydürler: ey epter, Mağrip deryasının

e) nihayeti payanı ve haddi(mi) bulunur? Buharı zulmetle doludur, derler. Mezbur Kolonbo görür ki Cinevizlerden çare yok, sürer, İspanya Beyine varır, hikâyeti bir bir arzeder.

f) Anlar dahi Cinevizli gibi cevap verirler. Velhasıl bunlara Kolonbo hayli ibram eder. Ahir İspanya Beyi iki gemi verip bunun muhkem yarağın görüp eydür: ey Kolonbo, eğer

g) senin dediğin gibi olursa, seni ol diyara kapudan ideyin, deyip mezbur Kolonboyu Bahri Mağribe gönderdi. Merhum Gazi Kemalin İspanyalı bir kulu vardı, mezbur kul Kolonbo ile

h) Üç defa ol diyara vardım, deyu merhum Kemal Reise hikâyet edip eydür: evvel Septe Boğazına vardık, dahi oradan gün batısı lodosun ikisinin ortasına…

i) Rast dört bin mil yürüdükten sonra karşımızda bir ada gördük; amma gittikçe deryanın mevci köpüklenmez olmuş, yani deniz sakin olup düzelmiş; ve Şimal yıldızı dahi –

j) bahrîler puslalarında gene yıldız derler – ol yıldız gide gide dolunmuş görünmez olmuş; ve dahi eydür ki : bu tertipçe yıldızlar ol diyarda görünmez, gayri tertipçe görünür, der.

k) Andan evvel karşıda gördükleri adaya demir korlar, ol adanın halkı gelir, bunlara ok vurur, komazlar ki dışarı çıkıp haber soralar. Erkeği ve dişisi el okun atarlarmış.

l) Ol okun demreni balık süğüğünden; ve cümlesi üryan yürürlermiş ve hem gayet… Görürler kim ol adaya çıkarmazlar, adanın öte yüzüne geçmişler,

m) bir sandal görürler; bunları görücek sandal kaçıp karaya dökülürler. Bunlar sandalı almağa varırlar, görürler ki içinde adam eti var. Meğer bunlar bu tayfa imiş ki

n) adadan adaya çıkıp adam şikâr edip yerler imiş. Mezbur Kolonbo bir ada dahi görüp ana varırlar, görürler kim ol adada ulu yılanlar var. Ol yere çıkmadan

o) hazer edip bir gayri adaya dahi varırlar. Demir korlar, on yedi gün onda yatarlar. Bu adanın halkı görürler ki kendilere bu gemiden ziyan yok, varırlar, balık

p) avlayıp filikasile bunlara getirirler. Bunlar da hoş görüp anlara sırça boncuk verirler. Meğer kim sırça boncuk ol diyarda muteber idiyin kitapta bulmuş imiş.

q) Anlar boncuğu görüp dahi ziyade balık getirirler. Bunlar daim anlara sırça boncuk verirler. Bir gün bir avretin kolunda altın görürler, altın alıp boncuk verirler.

r) Bunlar eydür: varın, dahi altın getirin, size dahi ziyade boncuk verelim, derler. Anlar varıp dahi vafir altın getirirler. Meğer bunların dağlarında altın madeni

s) varmış. Bir gün dahi birinin elinde inci görürler. İnciyi alıp boncuk verirler. Bunlar görürler ki boncuk verirler dahi vafir inci getirirler. İnci bu adanın kenarında

t) bir iki kulaç yerde bulunurmuş ve dahi ol diyardan vafir bakkam ağacını yükledip mezbur halktan ikisini alıp ol yıl içinde İspanya Beyine getirirler.

u) Amma mezbur Kolonbo ol kişilerin dilin bilmeyip işaretle alışveriş ederlermiş. Ve bu seferden sora İspanya Beyi papaz ve arpa gönderip ekin biçim öğredip

v) kendi tarikıne koymuş; bunların bir veçle mezhepleri yoğmuş, hayvan gibi üryan yürüyüp anda yatarlarmış.

q) Şimdi ol diyarlar tamam açılıp meşhur olmuştur. Bu isimler ki mezbur cezairde ve kenarlarda kim vardır,

y) Kolonbo komuştur ki anınla malûm oluna. Ve hem Kolonbo ulu müneccim imiş. Mezbur hartide olan bu kenarlar

z) ve cezireler kim vardır, Kolonbonun hartisinden yazılmıştır.

This section tells how these shores and also these islands were discovered.

This painting represents the landing of Christopher Columbus on the island of Hispaniola (1728), Library of Congress.

These coasts are named the shores of Antilia. They were discovered in the year 896 of the Arab calendar. But it is reported thus, that a Genoese infidel, his name was Colombo [Columbus], who discovered these places. For instance, a book fell into the hands of the said Colombo, and he found it said in this book that at the end of the Western Sea [Atlantic] that is, on its western side, there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones. Colombo, having studied this book thoroughly, explained these matters one by one to the greats of Genoa and said: “Come, give me two ships, let me go and find these places.” They said: “O unprofitable man, can an end or a limit be found to the Western Sea? Even its vapour is full of darkness.” The above-mentioned Colombo saw that no help was forthcoming from the Genoese, he sped forth, went to the Bey of Spain [king], and told his tale in detail. They too answered like the Genoese. In brief Colombo petitioned these people for a long time, finally the Bey of Spain gave him two ships, saw that they were well equipped, and said: To top

“O Colombo, if it happens as you say, let us make you the “kapudan” [admiral] to that country.” Having said this, he sent the said Colombo to the Western Sea. The late Gazi Kemal had a Spanish slave. The above-mentioned slave said to Kemal Reis, he had been three times to that land with Colombo. He said: “First we reached the Strait of Gibraltar, then from there straight south and west between the two . . . [illegible]. Having advanced straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea was becalmed and the North Star – which the seamen on their compasses still call the star – little by little was veiled and became invisible, and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged as here. They are seen in a different arrangement. They anchored at the island which they had seen earlier across the way, the population of the island came, shot arrows at them and did not allow them to land and ask for information. The males and the females shot hand arrows. The tips of these arrows were made of fishbone, and the whole population went naked and also very . . . [illegible].

Columbus’ Four Voyages permanently shifted the future of Americas.

Seeing that they could not land on that island, they crossed to the other side of the island where they saw a boat. On seeing them; the boat fled and they [the people in the boat] dashed out on land. They [the Spaniards] took the boat. They saw that inside of it there was human flesh. It happened that these people were of the kind who went from island to island hunting men and eating them. They said Colombo saw yet another island, they neared it, they saw that on that island there were great snakes. They avoided landing on this island and remained there seventeen days. The people of this island saw that no harm came to them from this boat, they caught fish and brought it to them in their small boats. These [Spaniards] were pleased and gave them glass beads. It appears that he [Columbus] had read-in the book that in that region glass beads were valued. Seeing the beads they brought still more fish. These [Spaniards] always gave them glass beads. One day they saw gold around the arm of a woman, they took the gold and gave her beads. They said to them “bring more gold, we will give you more beads”. They went and brought them much gold. It appears that in their mountains there were gold mines. One day, also, they saw pearls in the hands of one person. They saw that when; they gave beads, many more pearls were brought to them. Pearls were found on the shore of this island, in a spot one or two fathoms deep. And also loading their ship with many logwood trees and taking two natives along, they carried them within that year to the Bey of Spain. But the said Colombo, not knowing the language of these people, they traded by signs, and after this trip the Bey of Spain sent priests and barley, taught the natives how to sow and reap and converted them to his own religion. They had no religion of any sort. They walked naked and lay there like animals. Now these regions have been opened to all and have become famous. The names which mark the places on the said islands and coasts were given by Colombo, that these places may be known by them. And also Colombo was a great astronomer. The coasts and island on this map are taken from Colombo’s map.

6 –a) Bu fasıl işbu hartinin ne tarikle telif olduğunu beyan eder.

b) İşbu harti misalinde harti asır içinde kimesnede yoktur. Bu fakirin elinde telif olup şimdi bünyat oldu. Hususan

c) yirmi miktar hartiler ve Yappamondolardan – yani İskenderi Zülkarneyn zamanında telif olmuş hartidir ki rubu meskûn

d) anın içinde malûmdur; Arap tayfası ol hartiya Caferiye derler anın gibi sekiz Caferiyeden ve bir Arabî Hint

e) hartisinden ve dört Portukalın şimdi telif olmuş hartilerinden kim Sint ve Hint ve Çin diyarları hendese

f) tariki üzerine ol hartilerin içinde mesturdur, ve bir dahi Kolonbonun garp tarafında yazdığı hartiden

g) bir kıyas üzerine istihraç edip bu şekil hâsıl oldu; şöyle ki bu diyarın hartisi bahriler içinde nice sahih

h) ve muteber ise, mezbur harti de dahi yedi derya ile sahih ve muteberdir.

6. This section explains in what way this map was drawn. In this century there is no map like this map in anyone’s possession. The hand of this poor man has drawn it and now it is constructed from about twenty charts and Mappae Mundi, these are charts drawn in the days of Alexander, Lord of the Two Horns, which show the inhabited quarter of the world; the Arabs name these charts Jaferiye, from eight Jaferiyes of that kind and one Arabic map of Hind, and from the maps just drawn by four Portuguese which show the countries of Hind, Sind and China geometrically drawn, and also from a map drawn by Colombo in the western region. By reducing all these maps to one scale this final form was arrived at. So that the present map is as correct and reliable for the Seven Seas as the maps of our own countries are considered correct and reliable by seamen.

7-Bu yerde Portukal kâfiri rivayet eder kim bu yerde gece ve gündüz kısalıcak iki saat olur, (b) uzayıcak yirmi iki saat olur. Amma gündüzü gayet ıssı olup ve (c) gecede gayet çiy düşer derler.

7. It is relayed by the Portuguese infidel that in this spot night and day are at their shortest of two hours, at their longest of twenty two hours. But the day is very warm and in the night there is much dew.

“This range of latitudes, in Drake Passage south of Tierra del Fuego and the Palmer Peninsula in Antarctica, is further south than the Portuguese or anyone else is known to have sailed until the next century.” (McIntosh, 47)

8 –a) Portukal gemisi Hint vilâyetine giderken muhalif rüzgâra duş gelir kenardan; bunu rüzgâr kenardan . . . . . . .

b) ken fırtınayile kıble canibine gittikten sora karşılarında bir kenar görürler, anın üzerine yürürler…

c)görmüşler ki hûp demir yerlerdir. Demir korlar, sandalla kenara çıkarlar, görürler kim adamlar yürür, herbirisi üryan;

d) ve lâkin el okun atarlar, demrenleri balık süğüğünden. Bunlar anda sekiz gün yatarlar, o halkla satı pazar ederler işareyile.

e) Bu diyarları ol barça görüp yazmıştır ki….çekip durur. Mezbur barça Hinde gitmeyip döner, Portukala varıp haber verir….

f) Bu kenarları tafsilile yazarlar; anlar bulmuş (?) oldu.

8. On the way to the vilayet of Hind a Portuguese ship encountered a contrary wind [blowing] from the shore. The wind from the shore . . . [illegible] it [the ship]. After being driven by a storm in a southern direction they saw a shore opposite them they advanced towards it [illegible]. They saw that these places are good anchorages. They threw anchor and went to the shore in boats. They saw people walking, all of them naked. But they shot arrows, their tips made of fishbone. They stayed there eight days. They traded with these people by signs. That barge saw these lands and wrote about them which. . . . The said barge without going to Hind, returned to Portugal, where, upon arrival it gave information. . . . They described these shores in detail. . . . They have discovered them.

9-a) Ve bu diyarda ak kıllı ve bu şekilli/canavar ve dahi altı boynuzlu kâvlar/olurmuş; Portukal kâfiri hartilerinde yazmışlar.

9-And in this country it seems that there are white-haired monsters in this shape, and also six-horned oxen. The Portuguese infidels have written it in their maps.

 

 

10 – Bu diyarda imaretlik yoktur, cümle haraptır ve ulu yılanlar olurmuş ; ol sebepten Portukal kâfiri bu kenarlara çıkmazlar imiş ve hem gayet ıssılar olur imiş.

10. This country is a waste. Everything is in ruin and it is said that large snakes are found here. For this reason the Portuguese infidels did not land on these shores and these are also said to be very hot.

The information concerning snakes Piri Reis provides refers to Brazil according to McIntosh. (p. 49)

11-Ve bu dört pare gemi Portukal gemisidir. Hem şekli yazılmıştır. Mağrip diyarından/Habeş burnuna geçerler kim Hinde gideler. Şuluk üzerine yürürler. Bu körfezi/arkırı geçmeğe dört bin iki yüz mildir.

11-And these four ships are Portuguese ships. Their shape is written down. They travelled from the western land to the point of Abyssinia [Habesh] in order to reach India. They said towards Chalice. The distance across this gulf is 4200 miles.

 

12-…bu kenarda bir kale…olur zira…iklimde altın…halat iledüp…nde ölçerler imiş. San Methiyos

12. …. on this shore a tower…. is however…. in this climate gold…. taking a rope …. is said they measured

“The small group of islands in the Gulf of Guinea labeled Sanmetiyos is San Mateus, or St. Matthew’s Island, a legendary island first reported by the Portuguese” (McIntosh, 31).

 

 

 

 

 

 

13– Ve bir Cineviz kükesi Flandırdan gelirken fırtına bulup önüne katar; zarurî giderken/bu adaların üzerine çıka varır, ve bu adalar bundan menkuldür: Santa Mavra, San Mikal, Eviko, Kopis, Firgal, Finoci, İzle Flores

13. And a Genoese kuke [a type of ship] coming from Flanders was caught in a storm. Impelled by the storm it came upon these islands, and in this manner these islands became known. And these islands are Santa Maria, San Miguel, Opico, Copras, Fayal, Graciosa?, Flores,

“Most of the names of the Azores are easily identifiable. They have retained the names given to them by the Portuguese…” (McIntosh, 28)

14– Rivayet ederler kim zamanı evvelde Sanvolrandan (Santo Brandan) derler bir papaz/yedi deryayı gezmiş derler. Mezbur bu baluğun üzerine uğramış/kuru yer sanıp baluk üzerine ot yakmışlar; baluğun sırtı kızıcak denize dalmış,/bunlar sandala koyulmuşlar, gemiye kaçmışlar. Bu ahval Portukal kâfirinden/zikrolunmaz. Kadîm Pappa Mondalardan [Mappa Mundi] menkuldür.

14. It is said that in ancient times a priest by the name of Sanvolrandan (Saint Brendan) travelled on the Seven Seas, so they say. The above-mentioned landed on this fish. They thought it dry land and lit a fire upon this fish, when the fish’s back began to burn it plunged into the sea, they reembarked in their boats and fled to the ship. This event is not mentioned by the Portuguese infidels. It is taken from the ancient Mappae Mundi.

In the sixth century AD, it is said that Irish monk Brendan travelled a sea journey around the Atlantic Ocean. There have been celebrations for him in Ireland and people producued lots of legends and stories regarding his quest.  

15 – Bu hurda adalara Undizivercine deyu ad koymuşlardır, yani on bir bikr demek olur.

15-To these small islands they have given the name of Undizi Vergine. That is to say, the Eleven Virgins.

Barbura: Triz makos üç deliler demek olur/Barbura means three mads.

 

McIntosh underlines that “Columbus discovered the Virgin Islands..and named…the “Eleven-Thousand Virgins”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16-Ve bu adaya Antilya adası derler. Canavar ve tuti ve bakkam gayet çoktur,/veli imaret değildir. And this island they call the Island of Antilia. There are many monsters and parrots and much logwood. It is not inhabited.

Antillia is known as a phantom and legendary island in the Atlantic Ocean whose existence was disputed in the Early Modern Era.

 

 

 

17– Bu kenarları bu barça fırtına ile gelip düştük deyip durur/Adına Nikola di Cuvan derler. Hartisine yazmış ki bu ırmaklar kim/görünür ekseri hep altın toprağıdır. Suyu kaçtıktan sonra kum/içinden altın toprağını vafir devşirlermiş ; hartisinde …

17. This barge was driven upon these shores by a storm and remained where it fell. . . . Its name was Nicola di Giuvan [Juan de la Cosa]. On his map it is written that these rivers which can be seen have for the most part gold [in their beds]. When the water had gone they collected much gold [dust] from the sand. On its map...

Juan de la Cosa’s World Map (1500). His map incorporated the territories of the Americas with mainland European and African territories for the first time.

18-Portakalın fırtına bulup da bu diyara gelen barçası/budur. Tafsili kenarda yazılmıştır.

18-This is Portugal’s barque that came to this land with the storm. Detail is written on the corner.

 

 

 

 

 

19-Portukal kâfiri burdan gün batısı canibine geçmez./O canip hep İspanyanındır. Bunlar kavil etmiştir ki iki bin mil/Septe Boğazının günbatısı tarafında sınır etmişlerdir. Portukal ol/canibe geçmez, amma Hint canibi ve cenup canibi hep Portukalındır.

19. The Portuguese infidels do not go west of here. All that side belong entirely to Spain. They have made an agreement that [a line] two thousand mile., to the western side of the Strait of Gibraltar should be taken as a boundary. The Portuguese do not cross to that side but the Indian side and the southern side belong to the Portuguese.

The agreement refers to the raya, or Line of Demarcation, according to the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), according to which, all discoveries east of raya (around Cape Verde Islands) were to belong to Portugal and west of the line were to belong to Spain.

20-Ve bu karaveleyi fırtına bulup geldi, bu adaya düştü; ismine/Nikola Cuvan derler. Ve bu adada vafir birer boynuzlu kâv çoktur./Ol sebepten bu cezirenin İzle (de) vaka derler, yani sığır adası demek olur. İzle de Veka

20-And this caravel having encountered a storm was driven upon this island. Its name was Nicola Giuvan. And on this island there are many oxen with one horn. For this reason they call this island Isle de Vacca, which means, Ox Island

Its location and place have been debated among scholars. (McIntosh, 30-31)

 

 

21– Emrye, Bomiste, Sigogo, Dösalo, Rosigo, Brava, Sen Nikola, İleçi, İlebiyanko, Sen Tiyono

Bu Karavelenin reisine Mesir Anton Cineviz derler, amma Portukalda/büyümüştür. Bir ün mezbur karavelesile fırtına bulup/gelmiş, bu cezirelere düşmüş ; vafir zencebil bulup bu ada/ları ol yazdı.

21. The admiral of this caravel is named Messir Anton the Genoese [Antonio da Noli], but be grew up in Portugal. One day the above-mentioned caravel encountered a storm, it was driven upon this island. He found much ginger here and has written about these islands.

In 1460, Antonio da Noli discovered some of the Cape Verde Islands and started colonizing them. 

 

22 –a) Bu denize Bahri Mağrip derler, amma Efrenç tayfası Mar de İspanya derlerdi, yani İspanya Denizi

b) demek olur. Şimdidek bu isimlerle meşhurdu. Amma Kolonbo ki bu deryayı açmıştır ve bu

c) cezairi ol malûm etmiştir, dahi Portukal kâfiri ki Hint diyarın açtılar, bu cümle

d) birbirile ittifak ettiler kim işbu deryaya yeni isim vereler. Bu deryanın adını

e) Ovosano (Oseano) kodular, yani Sağ yumurta demek olur. Bundan evvel

f) fikirleri bu imiş ki bu deryanın haddü payanı olmaya, ötesi zulemat ola

g) Şimdi gördüler kim bunca kenar denizi kuşadıp durur; bu derya bir göl gibi ol-

h)duğu için Sağ yumurta deyu ad verdiler. Sah.

Atlantic Ocean - Kids | Britannica Kids | Homework Help22. This sea is called the Western Sea (the Atlantic Ocean), but the Frank sailors call it the Mare d’Espagna. Which means the Sea of Spain. Up to now it was known by these names, but Colombo, who opened up this sea and made these islands known, and also the Portuguese, infidels who have opened up the region of Hind have agreed together to give this sea a new name. They have given it the name of Ovo Sano [Oceano] that is to say, sound egg. Before this it was thought that the sea had no end or limit, that at its other end was darkness. Now they have seen that this sea is girded by a coast, because it is like a lake, they have called it Ovo Sano.

 

23 – Kav de Santa Agostini, San Megali, San Françesko, Ve bu yerde bir boynuzlu kâv-olur ve hem bu şekilli canavarlar – olur.

23- [On the left] In this spot there are oxen with one horn, and also monsters in this shape.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24 – Bu canavarın yedi karış boyu/vardır, gözünün aralığı bir karıştır/amma selimi nefs imiş.

24. [On the right] These monsters are seven spans long. Between their eyes there is a distance of one span. But they are harmless souls.

 

 

 

25-Bu diyar [Brezilya kıyıları] abadanlıktır ve beniadem çoktur: San Megali, San Françesko, Port Dali, Totel Sante, Abraklok, Kav Friyo, Sano Saneyro, Katino.

25-This land [Brazilian Coast] was flourishing and humankind was abundant: San Miguel, Rio Sao Francisco, Porto Real, Bahia de Todos os Santos, Abrolhos, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Cananea.

26-İl de Sare: Bu adalar ıssızdır amma bahar çoktur.

26-Il de Sare: These islands are deserted but spring is much.

“The source of the place-names Sara…is unknown…Possibly Sara is related to or derived from the Island of Sara, described by Edrisi in the twelfth century…” (McIntosh, 44)

 

 

 

 

 

27A-İle Verde, Trispoze, İstonasit, Sandani

There have been several discussions about the place and location of these islands.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27B-El Cezire Izle d’Espanya [Hispaniola], Paksin Vidad, Brebeniş, Santa Marya, Portagande [Guantanamo May], İle Marsumanye

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28-Bu canavara Sami derler.

28-This monster is called Sami.

 

 

 

 

29-Bu diyarın dağlarında bu şekilde canavarlar olurmuş./Ve yalı kenarında beniâdem çokmuş. Altun/madeninin nihayeti yoktur.

29- In the mountains of this region there are beasts in this shape, and on the shores
are many men and no end of gold ore.

Piri Reis refers to cynocephaly (or dog-faced men) as a mythical creature in this identification.

 

 

 

 

30-Bu cezirelerde altun madeni varmış: İlde Viyole, İlde Desane, İzle Matos.

30-There are gold mines in these islands: Ilde Viyole, Ilde Desane, Isles Matos.

Their places have been unknown and debated among scholars.

 

 

 

 

F1-Padişah-ı Kine (Ruler of Guinea)

This sultanate probably refers the Songhai Empire (1460-1591) as the most significant state in West Africa. As for sultan, it can be King Mohammad I (1494-1528) whose reign saw the biggest territorial extent of the Songhai.

 

 

 

 

 

F2-Merakiş Padişahı (the Sultan of Marrakesh)

At this time Hintata tribe controlled Marrakesh in Morocco and its domination drastically reduced to the surrounding area of Marrakesh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F3-Sancuvano Batisdo [San Juan in Puerto Rico], İzle bele, Kavav, Samokrino, Santemeroye [St. Martin], Galanda, Dösıyta, Vadluk, Kalevut [Guadelope], Santelmu, San Cuvan Batisdo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F4-Galiziya Memleketi-Bilâd-ı İspanyaBaskinLizbonTaht-ı Portakal-Portakal Kenarı-Kırnata-Septe Boğazı

F4-Galicia-The Land of SpainBasquesLisbonThrone of Portugal-Border of Portugal-Granada-The Strait of Gibraltar

Sources

The Piri Reis Map of 1513, Gregory C Mclntosh, The University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Piri Reis Haritası (Piri Reis Map), Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı Neşriyatı (The Publication of the Naval Forces, Third Edition, 1981.

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