Tag: Environmental History

The Meanings of Crime and Cleaning in the Late Ottoman World: A Brief Investigation of the Imperial Ottoman Penal Code (1858)

  The Ottoman Empire’s project of implementing reforms was a significant transformation after facing internal and external hardships in the nineteenth century. Particularly, the Edict of Gülhane in 1839 brought about new reforms called the Tanzimat. The Edict promised to secure justice, honor, and property and to promulgate regulations and laws in a variety of […]