The Meanings of Crime and Cleaning in the Late Ottoman World: A Brief Investigation of the Imperial Ottoman Penal Code (1858)

The Ottoman Empire’s project of implementing reforms was a significant transformation after facing internal and external hardships in the nineteenth century. Particularly, the Edict of Gülhane in 1839 brought about new reforms called the Tanzimat. The Edict promised to secure justice, honor, and property and to promulgate regulations and laws in a variety of areas. The establishment of a new …

“The Muslim Bonaparte” is Rising: The Building of Albania and Ioannina by A Skilled Landlord

The role of Ioannina (Yanya) as the heart of life in Albania In this summary, I attempted to investigate the book “The Muslim Bonaparte: Diplomacy & Orientalism in Ali Pasha’s Greece (Princeton, 1999)” by Katherine Elizabeth Fleming who greatly examined Ali Pasha and his surroundings. I emphasized two chapters of this valuable work in probing the role of the geographic, …